Archive for March, 2011


Film Strip: Meg’s New Guitar

31 March, 2011


Using a combination of the techniques below, take 4 photographs that tell a story in a sequence. Then,using Photoshop, manipulate the images to look like they are part of a photo booth photo strip.

* rule of thirds
* leading lines
* perspective


History of Photography | 4th Century AD – Present

31 March, 2011

The Daguerreotype photographic process was invented by Frenchman Louis Daguerre. Daguerre exposed a light-sensitive metal sheet which created a direct positive image. Exposure time took up to half an hour. It was a faster development than the process developed by Joseph Niepce. It was a disadvantage because it was expensive, slightly time consuming, and was portable, but one must carry the immersing salt. It also could not be duplicated. *Example of a photograph taken by this camera:

The Calotype Process was invented by William Fox Talbot. The subject would have been exposed onto light-sensitve paper, producing paper negatively. More effective, and duplicates could be made from the negatives. Unlimited duplicates could be made. The image quality was still not of great quality. *Example of a photograph taken by this camera:


Charles Archer invented the Wet Collodion Process (also known as the Wet Plate Process). Exposure time reduced to 2 or 3 seconds. Cost was significantly less than the Calotype Process. Plates exposed and developed immediately while the plates were still wet. The image was better quality than the previous processes, but were still produced on breakable glass. *Example of a photograph taken by this camera:


The Dry Plate Process was invented by an English physicist, Richard Maddox. His process of using gelatin instead of glass for a photographic plate is still the base of film today. It was easier to carry around, a cheaper process than it’s predecessors.

The first photograph of a human was taken by Robert Cornelious of himself (self-portrait) in either October or November of 1839. *The very first human photographed:

What is photo emulsion? Photo emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid (like gelatin) coated onto a substrate (coating; a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as a substrate).


Why did Eastman name his company Kodak? Eastman had said that the letter “K” was “a strong and incisive letter”. He wanted people to be able to pronounce it correctly, not mispronounce it. “it should be short, one cannot mispronounce it, and it could not resemble anything or be associated with anything but Kodak!” –Eastman.


Polaroid instant photography is a unique and interesting process. Invented by the Edwin Land (Polaroid Corporation), the camera self-generates instant film from the camera.  The first rolled film for the camera required photographers to read the light-level and set the exposure settings on the camera before taking the picture. The photographer focused on its subject(s) and took the picture. They would then pull a large tab to move the negative over the positive. The photographer would then wait until the picture developed from within the camera. Once developed, they would open a small ‘door’ in the back of the camera and peel off the positive to separate it from the negative. For the old Polaroids, the black and white positive had to be coated in a fixing agent in order to prevent fading. This later led to the creation of colourless development film. *Image of an old Polaroid camera:



Trendy Type

31 March, 2011

Type is not new. It is not old. It is something that can never go out of style, or be yesterday’s fashion. The way we type is much different than the way we typed, say…a hundred years ago. To print took forever back then; hard, manual labour. Now, it takes only a few seconds. This generation has computers which were not around in the days of old. We have facebook, twitter, blogs, myspace and tumblr. It’s a flick of the wrist to send messages to friends and family without leaving the comfort of your own home. One can even send a tweet or post halfway across the globe in a matter of seconds. What happened to decorated letter-writing and the Pony Express?

Our forms of visual communication is set with the trends of Now. Whatever is in is the way we talk, type, and read. Popular fonts go with the decades and days gone by. It’s hard to imagine (for some) typing on a rickety typewriter, then creasing the pages to fit within the confines of an envelope. We ‘LOL’ and say ‘OMG’ and the music we listen to heavily influences type. Today, our graphics possibilities are endless, the sky is the limit. No more simple graphics and petty colours and pretty fonts. We can now get technical and our art and type can be however the mind envisions them.

In my opinion, the most probable causes for our influences of type are the clothes we wear and the music we listen to. Everyone may have a different speech pattern, but the way we type is slightly similar. With the technology we use to communicate with and use to print or submit to the internet is quick and easy. Whatever the trends are today can be gone tomorrow. It is just how we all interpret trendy type.


Assignment #6: Relief Printing

30 March, 2011

For this assignment, create movable type/stamp relief print onto cardstock. Use expressive type as the inspiration for your movable type/stamp. Expressive type is a form of typography in which you illustrate the meaning of a word using only the word itself.

1. Choose a word to illustrate expressively.

2. Either use Illustrator to create a template for the stamp or sketch it directly onto the foam (backwards*)

3. Cut the type out of the foam.

4. Cut your artboard out of white card stock

5. Glue it onto remainging card stock to create the stamp

6. Ink your type/stamp and relief print it onto the artboard.

I chose to do the word “Peek” for my relief printing. I tried to make it appear like it was ‘peeking’ over the bottom part of the page. One of my favourite assignments; it was hands-on and tedious, but produced nice results.


The Linotype Machine | 1886

30 March, 2011

Example of Sholes’ typewriter:

Example of Mergenthaler’s Linotype Machine:

Example of an operator using the Linotype Machine:


1.  Why was the typewriter an important part of our history?

The typewriter changed the way everything was printed. Newspapers became longer with more articles and images, operators were able to quickly type down their recordings/findings. It was a faster way to type and it was more movable and durable than a Gutenberg printing press. It was the first time in 400 years someone had modified printing of any kind and made it worth the while.

2. What is typesetting?

Typesetting is the composition of text material by means of types/sorts.

3. Why was the Linotype the greatest advance in printing since movable type?

The casting of the types were done in metal matrices as opposed to paper-mache. It can produce an entire line of type at once. It can be set mechanically rather than being set by hand. Plus, the entire typewriter could be transported anywhere.

4. How does the Linotype keyboard differ from the keyboard we use today?

The Linotype keyboard has 90 keys. It is set into three coloured-catagories: black, white, and blue. The black type (left side of the keyboard) are for lowercase letters. The white type (right side of the keyboard) is reserved for uppercase letters. The blue type (middle portion of the keyboard) is set for any punctuation, small capital letters, digits, and is fixed with spaces.


Assignment #5: Illuminated Manuscript

24 March, 2011

My illuminated manuscript, done with the poem “O Captain! My Captain!” by Walt Whitman. I illuminated the “O” in “Oh” for the poem. I used brushes (credit to and the font Gregorian FLF. This is what the manuscript (in my head) appeared to look like for this poem. Using soft colours on the papyrus.


The Gutenberg Press | 1440-Present

24 March, 2011

1.  Briefly explain how the Gutenberg Press worked. Which printing process is this an example of? Post a photo of the Gutenberg Press.

The press used metal typography. Pages were placed in an arrangement for a form, or frame. The paper is then inked and pressed between a frisket and a tympan, which is folded down. The bed is rolled under the platen and the impression is created by a screw which sends pressure to the ink. The screws are then reversed and the bed is flipped to its original position. Finally the sheets are removed. Some of the presses can be operated by steam power.



2. What is movable type? Post an photo of movable type within a type case.

Movable type is the system of printing using movable components to reproduce the elements of a document.



3. Briefly describe the process of porous printing.

Porous printing is the style of stencil and screen printing. Using a stencil image, ink is poured or squeezed on a nice, fine screen onto the object used for printing (i.e. paper, glass, textiles, or metals). The screen holds the pictograph or typographic material. This process uses such a heavy load of ink, bright and neon colours can be used. This can be used for making posters, detailed-fine art, and signs.

4. Briefly describe the process of intaglio printing.

An images is incised on a matrix or plate. The incisions are made by etching, dry-point, engraving, mezzotint, or aqua tint. On the surface, ink is added and then rubbed with a tarlatan cloth to remove any excess ink. A final rubdown is done with old newspaper, only leaving ink in the incisions. Damp paper is placed on top which runs together with the plate through the printing press. They are pressed together tightly to ensure the plate’s ink rubs off and imprints onto the paper.

5. Briefly describe the process of lithography.

Printing on stone or metal plates. Low-cost printing, not as expensive as other forms of printing. Created circa 1796. During the printing process, the stones or metal plates are kept wet with water. Solution and gum arabic are applied beforehand. The printing inks are based on drying oils and varnishes coated with pigments which is then rolled or flipped over so that the surface is facing upward. Special paper is put atop the stone/metal plate which is then run through the press. The paper is ripped or slipped off and the stone is left with engravings.

6. What is offset lithography?

Most commonly used printing technique. The ink is moved to a rubber blanket and then to a printing surface. There are two versions of this process: The first, formed in England ~1875 on tin, and then again in the United States ~1903 on paper.

7. How do printing presses that are utilized today compare to the Gutenberg Press? Post a photo example of an offset lithography press.

The modern press still utilizes relief printing, intaglio, porous and lithography printing. The Gutenberg  press used most of those effects, but was also made of wood, and then later on, cast iron.



8. What is CYMK? Describe four-color process printing.

CMYK stands for the colours cyan, yellow, magenta, and black (because ‘B’ is used for ‘blue’). Four-colour process is an essential printing process where you take the final artwork and break it down into CMYK format. Working with high-resolution images when printing, looks better in CMYK than RGB (red, blue, green) because the image quality is more profound and the colours are more closely matched. CMYK is used when printing because RGB does not looks as great on paper, because of it’s ever-lacking presence of the colour white. The process is more detailed, effective and precise. Instead of re-shooting an image that was printed in RGB, the user can edit with CMYK to the colours of choice because there is a presence of the colour black.